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The WFDP is a 525 year old Douglas-fir/western hemlock forest.

Site Description

The WFDP is located near Carson, WA in the Research Natural Area of the Gifford Pinchot National Forest, with the plot center at 45.82° N, 121.95° W. Elevation ranges from 352.4 m to 384.7 m for a vertical relief of 32.3 m (Fig. 1).

Figure 1. Topography of the Wind River Forest Dynamics Plot. The 20 m grid is shown on a LiDAR-derived digital elevation model of the plot (1 m horizontal resolution). The maximum elevation within the plot is 384.7 m; the minimum elevation is 352.4 m (5 m contours shown). LiDAR-derived bare-earth model courtesy of Watershed Sciences, Corvallis, Oregon.

Figure 2. Orthophoto of the Wind River Forest Dynamics Plot. This 15 cm resolution orthophoto matches the spatial extent of the topography in Fig. 1 (5 m contours superimposed). Orthophoto courtesy of Watershed Sciences, Corvallis, Oregon. The NEON tower is visible in the upper right corner of the image.


Figure 3. Temperature and precipitation in the Wind River Forest Dynamics plot (top) from PRISM 800 m climate normals (1981-2010), the water balance (middle) using a Thornthwaite-type evapotranspiration model, and historical trends based on PRISM 4 km monthly climate data.

Figure 4. Every live woody stem ≥1 cm diameter at breast height (DBH, 1.37 m) was tagged in 2010 and 2011 (30,973 live trees and 1,966 snags). The WFDP was expanded to 27.2 ha in 2016 (at the first remeasurement) to more fuly include the moisture gradent at the site. Mortality and recruitment surveys are conducted annually, factors associated with death are identified for all newly dead trees. Diameter is remeasured every 5 years.


Dendrometer bands

Figure 5. The 326 manual dendrometer bands were installed in 2013, and 43 automated logging dendrometers were installed in 2014 (41 TreeHuggers and two DBL60 from ICT International). These bands are remeasured periodically throughout the growing season to monitor tree growth and timing of water availability.

Temperature sensors and seedling study

Figure 6. Locations of 63 seedling subplots. Each subplot contains a 0.3 m2 seed trap to measure dispersal and a 1 m2 quadrat to measure seedling establishment and demography. Each subplot also contains a data logging temperature and light sensor (Onset HOBO logger).

Remote sensing


Figure 7. High resolution LiDAR point cloud showing canopy heights in the WFDP. The boom of the old Canopy Crane can me seen in the northeast corner.

Shrubs and Coarse Woody Debris

Coarse woody debris.

Figure 8. Location of all coarse woody debris from main stems ≥ 10 cm diameter at the large end.

Continous Shrub Cover.
Figure 9. Patches of continuous shrub cover mapped throughout the WFDP. The shrubs and downed wood are important factors in tree demography.

Data Sets

The WFDP was established around two existing permanent plots at the Wind River Field Station. A 4 ha plot with mapped locations of tree stems ≥5 cm dbh around the Wind River Canopy Crane (now the Wind River NEON instrument tower) was established in 1994 (now in the northeast corner of the WFDP), and a larger 12 ha plot was established in 1999 (the eastern half of the WFDP). Full surveys refer to a remeasurement as well as an assessment of recruitment and mortality.

 Year  4 ha plot  12 ha plot  WFDP
 1994  Full    
 1996  Mortality    
 1997  Mortality    
 1998  Mortality    
 1999  Full Full  
 2000  Mortality    
 2001  Mortality    
 2002  Mortality    
 2003  Mortality    
 2008  Full    
 2009  Mortality    
 2010  Full Full   Half
 2011      Full
 2012  Mortality/Recruitment  Mortality/Recruitment  Mortality/Recruitment
 2013  Mortality/Recruitment  Mortality/Recruitment  Mortality/Recruitment
 2014  Mortality/Recruitment  Mortality/Recruitment  Mortality/Recruitment
 2015  Mortality/Recruitment  Mortality/Recruitment  Mortality/Recruitment
 2016  Full  Full  Full
 2017  Mortality/Recruitment  Mortality/Recruitment  Mortality/Recruitment
 2018  Mortality/Recruitment  Mortality/Recruitment  Mortality/Recruitment
 2019  Mortality/Recruitment  Mortality/Recruitment  Mortality/Recruitment
 2020  Mortality/Recruitment  Mortality/Recruitment  Mortality/Recruitment
 2021  Full  Full  Full
 2022  Mortality/Recruitment  Mortality/Recruitment  Mortality/Recruitment

Woody Plant Species

 Species  Family
 Abies amabilis  Pinaceae
 Abies grandis  Pinaceae
 Abies procera  Pinaceae
 Acer circinatum  Sapindaceae
 Acer glabrum  Sapindaceae
 Alus rubra  Betulaceae
 Amelanchier alnifolia  Rosaceae
 Corylus cornuta subsp. californica  Betulaceae
 Cornus nuttallii  Cornaceae
 Frangula pursiana  Rhamnaceae
 Gaultheria shallon  Ericaceae
 Holodiscus discolor  Rosaceae
 Lonicera ciliosa  Caprifoliaceae
 Menziesia ferruginea  Ericaceae
 Oemleria cerasiformis  Rosaceae
 Pinus monticola  Pinaceae
 Pseudotsuga menziesii  Pinaceae
 Rhododendron macrophyllum  Ericaceae
 Rosa gymnocarpa  Rosaceae
 Rubus spectabalis  Rosaceae
 Taxus brevifolia  Taxaceae
 Thuja plicata  Cupressaceae
 Tsuga heterophylla  Pinaceae
 Vaccinium membranaceum  Ericaceae
 Vaccinium ovalifolium  Ericaceae
 Vaccinium parvifolium  Ericaceae
Trait information for our tagged species can be accessed through a .csv file here.